PjBL-HOTS learning model: Its application and effect on cognitive learning outcomes, critical thinking, and social attitudes
Learning in the digital era 4.0 brings changes for teachers and students. Teachers must prepare innovative digital-based learning to improve students' higher-order thinking skills. This study aims to analyze the effect of the application of the PjBL-HOTS learning model on cognitive learning outcomes, critical thinking, and social attitudes. This type of research is a quasi-experimental research design, which uses a pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. The study used two classes, namely class X1 as the experimental class while class X2 as the control class. The research instrument is in the form of essay questions to assess students 'cognitive learning outcomes and students critical thinking. Meanwhile, a questionnaire is used to assess students' social attitudes. The data analysis used descriptive and inferential analysis techniques. The inferential analysis used ANCOVA and ANOVA analysis with a significant level of α = 0.05. The results showed that there was an effect of the PjBL-HOTS learning model in improving students' cognitive learning outcomes, critical thinking, and social attitudes. This is because the ability to think critically is always empowered by the teacher at every stage of PjBL
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