• Yenny Anggreini Sarumaha Universitas Cokroaminoto Yogyakarta
  • Ilham Rizkianto Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
Keywords: justification, RME, design research, mathematical communication


The importance of mathematical justification in all classrooms is emphasized by reform movements in mathematics education. However, previous studies reveal that encouraging justification in mathematics classes is troblesome for mathematics teachers at all school levels. This present study is aimed to find out how justification help students to develop their mathematical understandings. To answer this question, we first determined the role of justification in teaching and learning process and how good students in justifying their answers. Design research was chosen as an appropriate mean to achive that goal. The study was conducted in a state university in Yogyakarta involving four students from fifty-one students as our focus group and one of researchers as a lecturer. Justification was the focus on this study and to promote it we chose RME as an approach that served as a learning environment. In this study, all data collected from classroom observation, group observation, students’ works, video recordings, field notes during teaching experiment, and students’ final writen test. Students’ works then analyzed using a justification rubric and describe thoroughly by considering other data collected during teaching learning process. The study revealed that there were some roles of justification in RME classroom, namely encouraged conceptual understanding, supported mathematical skill, promoted long lasting skill, and influenced social relationship. In this study, most students in our focus group have already made a good justification which was assessed by the points in the CLEAR rubric. Students wrote their solutions equipped by signs or simbols, made labels, used a complete sentence to answer the question, and elaborated procedures throroughly


Download data is not yet available.


Ayalon, M., & Hershkowitz, R. (2017). Mathematics teachers ’ attention to potential classroom situations of argumentation. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, November, 0–1.

Bell, A. W., & 1976. (1976). A Study of Pupils ’ Proof-Explanations in Mathematical Situations. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 7(1), 23–40.

Boaler, J., & Staples, M. (2008). Creating mathematical futures through an equitable teaching approach: The case of Railside school. Teachers College Record, 110(3), 608–645.

Cioe, M., King, S., Ostien, D., Pansa, N., & Staples, M. (2015). Moving Students to “the Why.” Mathematics Teaching in The Middle School, 20(8), 484–491.

Conner, A., Kosko, K. W., Staples, M., Cirillo, M., Bieda, K., & Newton, J. (2017). 2017 PME-NA Working Group : Conceptions and Consequences of What We Call Argumentation, Justification, and Proof. In E. Galindo & J. Newton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Issue October, pp. 1464–1473). Hoosier Association of Mathematics Teacher Educator.

De Villiers, M. (2002). Developing Understanding for Different Roles of Proof in Dynamic Geometry. ProfMat, October.

Francisco, J. M. (2022). Supporting argumentation in mathematics classrooms: The role of teachers’ mathematical knowledge. Lumat, 10(2), 147–170.

Freudenthal, H., & Reidel, D. (1983). Didactical Phenomenology o f Mathematical Structures,.

Gravemeijer, K., & Cobb, P. (2006). Design research from a learning design perspective. In J. van den Akker (Ed.), Educational Design Research (Issue May 2014, pp. 45–85). Routledge.

Hähkiöniemi, M., Hiltunen, J., Jokiranta, K., Kilpelä, J., Lehesvuori, S., & Nieminen, P. (2022). Students’ dialogic and justifying moves during dialogic argumentation in mathematics and physics. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 33(February).

Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. Van den. (2020). Mathematics in Teams—Developing Thinking Skills in Mathematics Education (M. Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen (ed.)). Springer.

Hiebert, J., Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Fuson, K., Human, P., Murray, H., Olivier, A., & Wearne, D. (1996). Problem Solving as a Basis for Reform in Curriculum and Instruction: The Case of Mathematics. Educational Researcher, 25(4), 12.

Hunter, J., & Anthony, G. (2008). The Development of Students ’ Use of Justification Strategies. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 265–272.

Hunter, J. M. (2007). Developing Early Algebraic Understanding in an Inquiry Classroom A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the Master of Education. Massey University.

James, C., Casas, A., & Grant, D. (2016). Using Scaffolding to Scale-up Justififcations. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 22(5), 294–301.

James, C., Philiben, L., & Knievel, M. (2016). Doing the Math: Supporting Student Justifications. 21(7), 416–423.

Kazemi, E. (1998). Research into Practice: Discourse That Promotes Conceptual Understanding. Teaching Children Mathematics, 4(7), 410–414.

Kazemi, E., Ghousseini, H., Cordero, E., Sam, S., Elzena, P., Alison, M., & Resnick, F. (2021). Supporting teacher learning about argumentation through adaptive , school ‑ based professional development. ZDM – Mathematics Education, 53(2), 435–448.

Lannin, J., Baker, D., & Townsend, B. (2006). Why , Why Should I Justify ? Mathematics Teaching in The Middle School, 11(9), 438–443.

Larbi, E., & Mavis, O. (2016). The Use of Manipulatives in Mathematics Instruction | LD OnLine. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(36), 53–61.

Liang, C. B. (2020). Justification in Mathematics. Office of Education Research (OER), NIE.

Mata-pereira, J., & Ponte, J. (2017). Enhancing students ’ mathematical reasoning in the classroom : teacher actions facilitating generalization and justification. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 96, 169–186.

McCrone, S. S. (2005). The Development of Mathematical Discussions: An Investigation in a Fifth-Grade Classroom. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 7(2), 111–133.

Melhuish, K., Fasteen, J., Thanheiser, E., & Fredericks, J. (2015). Teacher Noticing of Justification: Attending to The Complexity of Mathematical Content and Practice. In H. Bartell, T. G., Bieda, K. N., Putnam, R. T., Bradfield, K., & Dominguez (Ed.), Proceedings of the 37th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. (pp. 748–755). East Lansing.

NCTM. (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics: related to dis. In Nctm (Vol. 2).

NCTM. (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.

Rizkianto, I. (2013). Norma Sosiomatematik Dalam Kelas Matematika. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika Dan Pendidikan Matematika, November, 978–979.

Sarumaha, Y. A. (2016). Perubahan Pembelajaran yang Berpusat pada Guru ke Berpusat pada Siswa. Intersections, 1(1), 1–10.

Sarumaha, Y. A. (2018). Justifikasi dalam Pembelajaran Matematika. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Etnomatnesia, ISBN: 978-602-6258-07-6, 286–295.

Sarumaha, Y. A., Putri, R. I. I., & Hartono, Y. (2018). Percentage Bar: A Model for Helping Fifth Grade Students Understand Percentages. Mosharafa, 7(2), 155–166.

Staples, M. E., Bartlo, J., & Thanheiser, E. (2012). Justification as a teaching and learning practice: Its (potential) multifacted role in middle grades mathematics classrooms. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 31(4), 447–462.

Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. (2000). Mathematics education in the Netherlands: A guided tour. Freudenthal Institute CD-Rom for ICME9, 2(March 1999), 1–32.

Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., & Drijvers, P. (2014). Realistic Mathematics Education. In S. Lerman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Mathematics Education (pp. 521–525). Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg.

Van Zanten, M., & Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. (2021). Mathematics curriculum reform and its implementation in textbooks: Early addition and subtraction in realistic mathematics education. Mathematics, 9(7).

Widjaja, W. (2014). Year 3 / 4 Children ’ s Forms of Justification. In A. P. J Anderson, M Cavanagh (Ed.), Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Annual Conference 37th (pp. 694–697). Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.

Wood, T., Williams, G., & McNeal, B. (2006). Children’s mathematical thinking in different classroom cultures. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 37(3), 222–255

How to Cite